Kjeld Jakobsen discusses the challenges facing the Brazilian labor movement.
Labor organizations appear to be at a crossroads in Latin America. During the 20th century, many countries adopted an economic strategy of import-substitution industrialization (ISI), which forged positive relationships between labor-based parties and unions. Parties seeking electoral support from workers would promote benefits for labor within the political arena, and trade unions would use their organizational strength to deliver votes. In this way, labor-based political parties and trade unions were the primary intermediaries between citizens and the state.